The starting point for designing any product should be the focus for security.
In addition to the common sense, from the point of view of the law, with Directive 2001/95 / EC, the Safe Machinery Design Directive and many other products directives, the first step in designing is the risk analysis.
In order to assess the safety of a product, one must know what its characteristics are, then what dangers are related to these characteristics and finally the type and severity of the risks associated with these dangers.
It is easy to confuse the meaning between risk and danger: the risk is given by the severity of the consequences and the probability that a danger will occur; The danger is, however, a negative event that may occur as a result of the use of a product or the occurrence of a certain situation.
There are several ways to analyze the risks and depend on the quality and quantity of data, features, and resources to be evaluated. It is essential to have the awareness that risk analysis is an indispensable step in one way or another.
Of all the characteristics we examine the dangers and for each of them we calculate the risk. If this is high, take action to reduce or eliminate it, intervening on a project, prototype or product.
In case the risk can not be completely eliminated, the residual risk assessment is carried out and this will be accepted only if below a certain threshold, otherwise it will be necessary to investigate other solutions.
In the event that it is not possible to completely eliminate a residual risk and that it is below a certain level, it must be reported both on the documentation accompanying the product and the product itself.
This documentation is basically based on residual risks that are still present after finishing the risk analysis. For this reason, the instruction manual is not only inspired by the experience of the manufacturer and common sense, but first of all by careful and scientific risk analysis: the first indispensable step towards achieving product safety.